For a long time, the aim of this research was to prove the necessity of the neo-platonic model of thought (of the hypostases One – Intelligence – Soul – Matter and the process of emanation from the One through the Intelligence to the Soul and the Matter, the return-ascend from the Matter to the Soul and the Intelligence, and then to the One, and the rest in the One or the Good or the God) in explaining the traditional civilizations (especially before the 19th century), and every great discovery of the human spirit through the course of history, in terms of religions, philosophy and science, but also in other areas.
Therefore, the focus was on such subjects as the peoples without writing and the magic-religious mind (compared to the thought of Plotinus), the Egyptian hieroglyphics and their neo-platonic interpretation by the ancient Greeks, the Indology and the Indo-European theory (comparison of Providence Plotinus with the Hindu Dharma), the non-accidental homonymy of the first principle of Neo-Platonism (En=One) with the word “En” of the ancient Chaldeans and Babylonians since in their cuneiform writing it means the Lord or the Priest, and it is used as the first part of many compound words for their gods, such as En-Lil (Lord of the Storm), En-Ki (deity of crafts, mischief, water, intelligence and creation), the society of the Maya with its beginnings, its rise and its decline, the triadic structure in the work True History of Lucian of Samosata, the ascending process of the early Christian symbolism, the monomyth of the ancient Gnosticism (the fall in the material body, the awakening through initiation and the return-redemption on a transcendental level), the cosmopolitical and utopian search for the universal Logos, the Sublime, the Kingdom of the Intelligence and the divine (in the thought of Marcus Aurelius, Longinus, Plotinus and Saint Paul respectively), and the fall from there, the neo-platonic structure of the travels of Vasco da Gama (the influence of Neo-Platonism on the epic poem Lusiads of Luis de Camões is well known), the military history which implies the pursuit of freedom, the rise and the fall in the battles, the voluntarism and the regenerative, erotic and recurrent élan vital in the work of M. Karagatsis, the metaphysics of modern symbolism (in which the neo-platonic triad of a) the necessity of human ascent b) the division between the sensible and the intelligible and c) the transcendence of reason in the symbolic formatting, through an irrational or superrational meaning, is latent), the mystical experience as the basis of the historical understanding and the neo-platonic thinking, the neo-platonic refutation of the postmodern concept of the simulacrum, Walter Benjamin’s philosophy as a practice of traditional metaphysics in the modern cities, etc.
Of course, this research would not be possible without the presupposition of a longstanding engagement with the neo-platonic philosophy itself (especially with the Enneads of Plotinus). Also, undoubtedly, the neo-platonic influence on the Byzantine philosophy is for granted: if this influence is not taken into consideration, there is no way of studying the philosophical contemplation in Byzantium.
Finally, as regards the second part of this research, which is the existence of the neo-platonic model of thinking in the great discoveries of the human spirit, which influenced the development of science, until now shed light on the neo-platonic impact on the Notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci, the analogical and holistic way of thinking of the Jesuit polymath Athanasius Kircher, and the “golden chain” of the three worlds (the Earthly, the Celestial and the Intelligible) of the Hermetic philosophers and the first scientists in the Renaissance, the decipherment of cuneiform writing by Henry Rawlinson with the help -metaphorically- of the ancient zoroastrian god as presented in the sacred text of Avesta and the Behistun Inscription, etc.
After many researches on the neoplatonic reflections in history, I can say that it is necessary to re-create or to re-establish a Neo-Platonic science expressing the eternal and global spirit of the peoples and their development principles, based on the three dimensions of COSMOS-MAN-GOD.
Η ΝΕΟΠΛΑΤΩΝΙΚΗ ΕΡΜΗΝΕΥΤΙΚΗ